> LNK5@ ;bjbj22 &PXX36666666J*4JjjjjjEEE]______$ R"6EE66jjLLL6j6j]L]L*Lv66j^k]0n#n#4JJ6666n#6\E0u"L_EEEJJB
JJMod & Cod notes
Bandwidth efficiency = data rate / bandwidth
Power efficiency = relates to bit energy/noise density ratio.
QPSK is double bandwidth efficiency of BPSK and same power efficiency in terms of Eb/N0. But SNR performance is worse.
Going to higher order modulation improves bandwidth efficiency, although sometimes at the expense of power efficiency.
Hence we get M-PSK (typically 8PSK)
At high orders of M-PSK need high SNR because points are close together. Use QAM instead, laying out points on square grid.
Irregular constellations, such as AMPM and CROSS, are also sometimes used.
Non-linear channels
If you have a nonlinear amplifier, must use backoff to avoid distorting amplitude of signal. However, if signal has constant envelope, can use maximum power without problems of distortion.
Use exponential modulation, such as FSK.
MSK is also widely used, particularly in GSM.
MSK suffers from a wide main lobe bandwidth compared with QPSK, however. Gaussian filtering (GMSK) can reduce them, but bandwidth is still typically much wider than QPSK. Thats the penalty for using constant-envelope modulation.
Coding
Coding gain is a reduction in Eb/N0 in the coded system for the same BER and data rate. Its the principal reason for FEC coding.
Minimum Hamming Distance
The Hamming distance between two codewords is the number of bits by which they differ. For a code, the minimum Hamming distance is the important factor: the distance between the two most similar codewords. A code will detect up to dmin-1 errors and correct up to dmin/2 per codeword.
Systematic codes
A code is said to be systematic if the data bits appear in a particular position within the codeword. This is helpful in FEC coding of data packets, although non-systematic codes are obviously preferred if secrecy is desired!
Linear codes
A linear code has the property that the modulo-2 sum of any two codewords is another codeword. The all-zeros word must also be a codeword.
If a code is known to be linear we can characterise it by knowing just two codewords, called the basis.
Another property of linear cdes is that the minimum Hamming distance is equal to the minimum weight. Weight is the number of 1s within a codeword.
Generator matrices
If we take the two codewords that form the basis, we can put them into a matrix, known as the Generator Matrix and generate any codeword by multiplying it by a data vector, using modulo-2.
G is formed by taking the basis codewords and writing them as the rows of the matrix. Then right-append an identity matrix the same size. This creates a systematic code.
Parity check matrices
H is the parity check matrix, and it is orthogonal to G: i.e. GHT=[0]. This means that we can use this property to check if any received word is a codeword, by multiplying it by GHT and if we get zero, the word is a codword.
H is formed by taking G and writing the identity part as the topmost rows of H, and the basis part underneath it.
Syndrome decoding
This uses the same principle to decode. If you have a received word with errors defined by an error pattern (a vector with 1s where the word is in error), then you can represent it as a correct codeword added to the error pattern mod-2. This means that the syndrome, s, which is the result of multiplying the received word by GHT, is dependent solely on the error pattern. So, if we have a look-up table of which syndromes correspond to which error patterns, we can correct the word if the syndrome is non-zero.
SPC codes (single parity check)
Add one parity check bit to make even parity. Code is linear, dmin=2. Will detect one error but cannot correct any.
Hamming codes
These have code lengths of one less than a power of 2.They work by ensuring that all the rows of HT are different and non-zero so that all syndromes are different and therefore all error patterns can be identified and corrected.
Cyclic block codes
A code is cyclic if any cyclic shift of a codeword is another codeword. All important cyclic codes are also linear, and so the mod-2 sum of any pair of codewords is another codeword. Note that we can form all codewords from a single basis by cyclic shifts and mod-2 addition.
Polynomial representation
The single generator codeword used to generate the code can be expressed as a polynomial. Note that all the following arithmetic is in mod-2.
This means that the each code bit is represented as multiplied by an appropriate power of x, and that a cyclic shift is represented by multiplying the polynomial by x.
****CHECK FORMATION OF POLYNOMIALS MATHEMATICALLY****
Cyclic codes can be implemented using a shift register in hardware.
BCH codes
Bose-Chauduri-Hocquenghem codes. Cyclic codes capable of correcting multiple errors. Design based on Galois fields, but normally can get generator polynomials from a table.
Galois fields have strange arithmetic- need to use tables to solve problems concerning them- and they are used in Reed-Solomon codes.
Reed-Solomon codes
Widely used (CD and DVB-T), but derived from a generator polynomial based on a Galois field. Multiply data polynomial by generator using Galois arithmetic and then substitute bit groups for decimal numbers (3 = 011).
Reed-Muller codes
RM codes are cyclic but are usually described by a matrix rather than a polynomial. Matrix is generated by recursive algorithm ****SEE IF YOU NEED TO LEARN THE ALGORITHM-PROBABLY NOT!****
Decoding principles
Error probability- can find the likelihood of errors as a measure of code performance. You tend to get diminishing returns for Hamming codes as the block length increases, because theres a greater likelihood of more than one error in a longer block. Other codes dont suffer the same problem, notably BCH codes. RS codes are similar, although their great power is in correcting bursts of errors, which explains their popularity.
Hard and soft decision decoding
In the demodulator, a decision is made as to whether a particular part of the waveform represents 1 or 0. But the demod knows how close the decision was, and this can be used to help with the decoding. Soft-decision decoding selects the codeword which is nearest to the received signal in mean square error terms. This means using the Euclidean distance as a decoding metric. Ideal soft-decision decoding gives 2dB coding gain over hard decision. Trellis decoding is the optimal approach to soft decision decoding.
Euclidean distance and the geometric model
Euclidean distance is found by considering the n samples of the incoming waveform as the coordinates in an n-dimensional space. The signal is thus represented by a single point. If you have multiple signals, then the distance between the points in the space is the Euclidean distance. The square of this relates to power, so, for example, the Euclidean distance between the transmitted and received signals relates to the noise power on the link.
You can also use this geometric model to define the Union bound which limits the performance of soft decision decoding, and the Shannon bound which limits the capacity of the channel.
**** CHECK EXTRA CONTENT HERE- UNION BOUND ETC****
Convolutional codes
Widely used in wireless systems. Code is generated by a window mechanism- the window slides along the data waveform, block-by-block, generating code blocks. The size of the window is the constraint length, v.
The convolutional encoder is a finite state machine and is usually shown as a trellis diagram, giving the state of the encoder for each possible data bit.
Convolutional codes are characterised by the free distance, which is the smallest distance between any pair of code sequences beginning and ending on the same state. Usually use all-zeros path as reference for comparison, so minimum free distance is the shortest path that can leave the all zeros path and return to it later in the code sequence.
Convolutional codes are most commonly decoded using the Viterbi algorithm.
To decode:
- start from the last state that you have.
- for each branch leading to the node, calculate the distance metric of the received sequence from the branch label
- add to a tally kept at the node to the left.
- when youve done this to all the nodes in the column, select the path with the shortest distance metric. Delete the other paths, and any that lead solely to them. If this means that youve eliminated all-but-one path on a particular column, then that path must be the right answer and may be output.
You may notice that Viterbi decoding can take an infinite amount of time to produce the answers!
What is usually done is to have a finite decoding window- to force a decision. This is typically between 3 and 5 times the constraint length. For packeted systems (eg GSM) tail bits are added (zeros) to terminate the trellis to a known state. This means that the decoder can work quickly.
Sequential decoding can be used instead, works better with long constraint lengths.
Puncturing codes
Punctured codes are used to generate different code rates in convolutional codes. Some code bits are deleted according to a regular pattern. They have poorer performance than unpunctured, but allow high code rates without using highly complex decoders.
Concatenated codes
You can create a more powerful code by concatenating two simple codes: encoding the output of one code with another code. You can then have a complex code decoded with two simple decoders. The problem is that an error in one code cascades into multiple errors in the other code. This may be avoided by using a time-interleaver to break up the error bursts. R-S outer codes with convolutional inner codes were until recently the most powerful codes available, but still 2.5dB from Shannon bound.
Turbocodes
These are parallel-concatenated recursive-systematic convolutional codes. The encoders are in parallel and combined by a multiplexer. The input to the second encoder goes via an interleaver. Since systematic codes are used, the data can be separated from the check bits and is only sent once. The decoders use soft information from each code to identify the errors. They employ a feedback mechanism to successively refine the information in the code array, hence the term turbo, like the turbocharger in a car engine.
The more iterations the decoder goes through, the better the performance. Turbocodes dont have a particularly large minimum distance, but they have very few low-weight codewords, so few close neighbours. The iterative principle and the use of an interleaver introduces delay to the system, and high coding gain generally implies high latency.
Error Floor
At low levels of SNR, turbo codes have a very good performance, but at higher SNR there performance starts to level out. This effect is called error floor, and is caused by the minimum distance, which is in turn due to the interleaver.
Other codes using the same principles
Turboproduct codes: array codes with block codes on rows and columns, decoded using iterative decoding. Not as close to Shannon bound but now error floor, and easier to obtain high code rates.
Coded Modulation
FEC coding usually reduces channel capacity, as some of the capacity is used to carry check bits. However, if you use high-order modulation and FEC coding together, you can squeeze more capacity out of the channel. This technique was first used in telephone line modems, where the bandwidth is around 2.5kHz, and now you can get 56bkit/s over this line.
Constellation expansion:
replace QPSK with rate 2/3 encoder and 8PSK. Same terminal properties (2bit/symbol) but may be higher power efficiency. Coding and modulation need to be combined.
Asymptotic coding gain:
This is the limit of the coding gain compared to a reference scheme as SNR tends to infinity.
Set partitioning
Start with a multilevel constellation. Divide it into subsets, which have larger minimum distance than the constellation. So, for 8PSK you can have 2 sets of 4 points, each of which further decomposes to give a total of 4 sets of 2 points.
We can assign bits to points according to their subset structure (this gives an unnatural numbering arrangement, not the usual Gray code). The coding scheme needs to protect the LSB most and the MSB least, as the modulation ensures that the MSB is least vulnerable to noise.
Trellis Coded Modulation
Use mapping-by-set-partitioning to determine code scheme that generates maximum Euclidean distance.
All constellation points used equally often
All trellis branches from same node need to be from same B subset
All trellis branches converging to same node need to be from same B subset
All parallel branches to be assigned points from same C subset.
Need to use trellis with parallel branches (those that begin and end on same node)
Label trellis but use constellation diagram to determine squared Euclidean distance (Pythagoras/geometry).
Usually decoded by Viterbi soft-decision decoders.
Block Coded Modulation
Use block codes rather than convolutional. Use matrix to work out labelling scheme.
Can use other coding schemes, even turbocodes.
=>l
Y
l
m
*Thiop
*T./DÿhTbwhD# h@3H*h@3 hGlH*hGl hkqH*hkqhy>mhKkhTm0h!hDHdhxhA;h+. h;H*h;h5Lh]HwhJhv#hu
hu2>h
MZhXNh'IhlhRh,2>|}l
X
Y
m
*+Thipq
*+<;<,/0F'DES89L`a{gdkq78_`-.l'()<=8 !!!!""#$h%&'****Q+++¾¾~z~hhhFsh2hPhkh>sh5a@h2hNh\hh hyhyThqhZNAhGqhOAhhshz<hZhg!hIh^Dyhk-h h"h?swh)hD#hTbw hTbwH*0{./9lmYZl()=>!!=!"###gdNgdkq##$h%&&''E'''))x)****+++,...00m1n1z1gdN+,,'-u--..0/00^00l1m1f2N345567
889u::;;;hTbwhFivh
?h.hh!Jh|NhFivhj6h 0Rhth3&h$hSAhJhp\hOMhhw*h2h@HhuWh6h\whz}h5z1f2g22N3O3`3444555556688%8888B9999A:B:u:gdNu:v::::;;;gdN$&P 1h. A!"#$%@@@NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH DA@DDefault Paragraph FontVi@VTable Normal :V44
la(k@(No List3P/>|}l
XYm*+Thipq
*+<, /
0
F
'
DES89L`a{./9lmYZl()=>=hE!!x!""""###$&&&((m)n)z)f*g**N+O+`+,,,-----..00%0000B1111A2B2u2v222233300p00p0p0p0p000p00p00000p000p00 00 0 00 0 0(0 00 0 00 00p000p00000p000000000p000 00 0 000 0 000p00000000p00000p000000 0000p00p00000p0p00p00000p00 00p0 0p0(0p0(0p0p00(0p00(0(00000(00(00000000000p00000p000000000000p+;"%<{#z1u:;!#$&'; 8@0(
B
S ?55t+5|%+3%+39*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace/8lu:> %&>Rhu+!2!
""""=#J###L%W%%%&&A&N&&&_(i((())Y*d***U2\222333)
9YZ"$DGJ((()"),,,,B2t223333333333333333333-gip)=k""T--3333Bill Prior-Jones
|i$Z}E^~̗~.!BΖ©"m(h$j^`.^`.^`.^`.^`OJQJo(^`OJQJo(^`OJQJo(^`OJQJo(hh^h`.hh^h`OJQJo(
~}|
QP!A;XNg!D#v#)k-.+.Tm0@3u2>
?5a@ZNA@HI'IJ!JJ5LOM|N 0RyT
MZDHdkGly>mFsFiv]Hw\wTbw?sw^DyPu
"$yuWq,tKkx;p\SAs>s 3&j66lRz<I z}N5\hOAw*Gq22kq2Z@33X>3330@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3&z Arial"qhll&Pt+\t+\!Z24d223H)?,Mod & Cod notesBill Prior-JonesBill Prior-Jones4
Oh+'0 ,
HT
`lt|Mod & Cod notesod Bill Prior-JonesdillillNormal.dotJBill Prior-Jonesd80lMicrosoft Word 10.0@F#@B]ł@FZt+՜.+,0hp
Savoir Mer Ltd\2A
Mod & Cod notesTitle
!"#$%&'(*+,-./0123456789:<=>?@ABDEFGHIJMRoot Entry F;kO1Table)#WordDocument&PSummaryInformation(;DocumentSummaryInformation8CCompObjj
FMicrosoft Word Document
MSWordDocWord.Document.89q